- Mutation of “k” to “g”
This type of mutation is the most common one. When a vowel is added to a word ending with k, “k” becomes “ğ”.
e.g. Kabak (eng. zucchini )> Kabak + ı > Kabağı
Some of the loanwords don’t follow consonant alternation.
e.g. Hukuk (eng. law ) > Hukuk + u > Hukuku
- Although proper nouns have this mutation in spoken language, you must write them as mutation doesn’t occur and use an apostrophe instead.
e.g Berk ( a male name ) > Berk’in
- “p”,” ç”, “t” > “b”,”c”,”d”
When a vowel is added to a word ending with “–p, -ç, -t”, “-p,-ç,-t” must be mutated to “-b,-c,-d”
Let’s take a look at some examples:
Kitap (eng. book ) > Kitap + ı > Kitabı
Lütfen kitabı bana ver. (eng. Please, give me the book. )
İlaç (eng. medicine) > İlacı
Kağıt (eng. paper) > Kağıdı
Proper nouns and some loanwords show the same exception. In addition to that, some monosyllables do not follow this rule.
e.g. At (eng. horse) > At + a > Ata
We should emphasize that for proper nouns, these mutations occur only for spoken language but not for the written language.
- The word “peçete” (eng. handkerchief ) is usually taught as a reminder because of its consonants. “ P, Ç , T and k “ mutates to “ B, C, D, G “.