In Turkish, there are equivalents of these determiners too, which are listed below. However, to indicate possession, personal suffixes are more frequently used. Using both the determiner and the suffix indicates emphasis on the possession.
Turkish Personal Suffixes
|His / Her / Its||Onun|
As you might guess, personal suffixes follow the vowel harmony rules.
Here is a couple of examples:
Benim arabam kırmızı. (eng. My car is red.)
Senin kaç tane çocuğun var? (eng. How many children do you have?)
Onların evine gittim. (eng. I went to their house)
For the plurals, the same rules apply. Personal suffixes are attached after the plural suffix (-ler/lar)
İnsanlar (eng. Human-beings) => İnsanlar+ın (‘ın’ gives the meaning of ‘their’)
Onlar (eng. They) => Onlar+ın (eng. their)
One thing should be noticed here: The suffix of plural for the third person plural never repeats itself. < Çocukları (eng. his/her/its children) Also, Çocukları (eng. their children) > “Çocuklarları” is a significant cacophony.
In Turkish, some nouns and adjectives can be converted into an invocation by adding the first person singular suffix.
In Turkish, when specifying the noun, you must add the third-person suffix to the noun. Nevertheless, some time-honoured food names have dropped the third-person suffix. (eg. ‘yaprak sarması’ becomes ‘yaprak sarma’)
Most of the words indicating nationality can be formed by adding a suffix (-li -lı). Some nationalities, however, have their own words.
Azerbaycan (eng. Azerbaijan), Azerbaycanlı (eng. Azerbaijani), Türk (eng. Turk), Türkiyeli (eng. Turkish), Danimarka (eng. Denmark), Danimarkalı (eng. Danish)
Exceptions to this rule:
İtalyan (eng. Italian) İngiliz (eng. English), Amerikan (eng. American), Alman (eng. German), Çek (eng. Czech).
(In daily life, you may hear “Amerikalı” which has the same meaning as “American”.)