Grammar

Çağlar Öksüzoğlu

Grammar Instructor

I have been teaching Turkish for already 5 years on this website with my colleagues. We have created this well-organized course designed specially for fast progress. You’ll learn real Turkish right from the streets of Istanbul, not the boring textbook stuff.

CHECK IT OUT

You can learn helpful tips about Turkish Grammar on this page. We all know that learning grammar only can be boring. New techniques focus on different methods without grammar teaching. However, grammar always helps you a lot. We are grown-ups and we have a higher mental capacity than children. Using grammar knowledge effectively makes a great amount of progression.

Lesson Topics:

Each topic has its short summary below. To see detailed, click on the title.

8 Important Rules in the Turkish Grammar That You Must Learn

There are some basic grammar rules that will make your life easier when learning Turkish.

  1. Two vowels or two consonants rarely follow each other.
  2. Vowels from a specific type need to proceed the same type of vowels.
  3. Consonants from a specific type need to proceed the same type of consonants.
  4. If you are attaching a suffix to a proper noun, you’ll need to use an apostrophe to separate the suffix from the word.
  5. Word order in English is subject + verb + object whereas in Turkish subject + object + verb
  6. Non-continuant voiceless consonants (p,ç,t,k) tend to go voiced because it’s easier to say!
  7. There are three different buffer letters: ‘y’,’n’ and ‘s’. They prevent two vowels to come after each other.

New techniques focus on different methods without grammar teaching. However, grammar always helps you tremendously. We are grown ups and we have a higher mental capacity than babies. Also, we do not learn the same way that babies do. Using grammar knowledge effectively make a great amount of progression.

Turkish Grammar Topics:

Each topic has its short summary below. To see detailed, click on the title.

Beginner: Alphabet

  • List of 29 letters
  • <Ü, İ, Ö, Ç, Ğ, Ş>
  • Some history
  • Changes in loanwords
  • TDK (turkish language society)
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Beginner: Vowels

  • Vowels
  • Back and front
  • Rounded and unrounded
  • Soft g (eng. yumuşak g)
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Beginner: Vowel Harmony

  • Def. of vowel harmony
  • Agglutinative languages
  • Rule 1: minor vowel harmony
  • Rule 2: major vowel harmony
  • Examples and tips
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Beginner: Apostrophe and Circumflex Accent

  • “Kesme işareti” (‘) (apostrophe)
  • How to say ‘what’s up’?
  • Capital letter rules
  • The Circumflex Accent
  • â (şapkalı a) and how to type it.
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Beginner: Var/Yok

  • Var/Yok
  • Yok: There is not / There are not
  • Var: There is / There are
  • Paradigm of var/yok
  • Question Form: Var mı? / Yok mu?
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Elementary: Cases

  • What is a ‘case’?
  • Buffer-letter
  • The absolute form
  • Accusative
  • Genitive
  • Dative
  • Locative
  • Ablative (also its etymology)
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Elementary: Consonant Alternation (Consonant Harmony)

  • ‘K’ to ‘G’
  • Proper nouns
  • Exceptions in the written language
  • P,ç,t > b,c,d
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Elementary: Verb ‘to be’

  • Olmak ya da olmamak
  • “to be”
  • Negative form
  • The past form of “to be”
  • Hayatta en hakiki mürşit ilimdir.
  • Conditional of to be
  • Inferential of to be
  • Değil
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Elementary: Possessive Determiners (Personal Suffixes)

  • Benim, senin, onun, bizim, sizin, onların
  • Food: sarma, dolma
  • The absolute form
  • Words indicating nationality
  • Exceptions
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Elementary: Loanwords in the Turkish Language

  • Etymology of ‘coffee’
  • French and Italian loanwords in Turkish
  • ‘Muharebe’ (eng. War), ‘Kitap’ (eng. Book), ‘Zan’ (eng. Doubt)
  • Recent loanwords
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Elementary: Present Tense

  • What is the present tense?
  • When to use present tense?
  • Şimdiki zaman
  • Interrogative form
  • Singular/Plural
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Elementary: Turkish Word Order

  • SVO and SOV
  • Adverbs
  • Adjectives
  • Emphasis
  • Inverted Sentence
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Intermediate: Future Tense

  • -ecek / -acak
  • How to use Future tense?
  • Future past
  • Ancient future
  • Examples
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Intermediate: Turkish Adverbs

  • Adverb suffix -CA
  • Adjective or Adverb?
  • Examples
  • Convert the Noun into Adverb
  • Cases with Adverbs
  • Çok and Daha
  • Adverbs of frequency
  • Months and Season
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Intermediate: Conjunctions

  • What is conjunction in Turkish?
  • ‘Dahi anlamındaki -de ayrı yazılır.’
  • Ve (and)
  • Ama, Ancak Fakat, Lakin (but)
  • Madem, madem ki (seeing that)
  • Ne … Ne (Neither nor)
  • Gerek, Hem, İster, Ha, Ya
  • İse
  • Ki (that)
  • Diğer taraftan, yoksa, çünkü etc.
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Intermediate: Miş-Past (Reported Past Tense)

  • Geçmiş zaman
  • I gather that you have gone
  • Negative of miş-past
  • Interrogative of miş-past (Have I read?)
  • Past perfect tense
  • Video!
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Intermediate: Postpositions, Circumpositions and Prepositions

  • İçinde, içerisinde (in)
  • Üzere, nezdinde, içerisinde
  • Üstünde (on)
  • Yan, alt, dış (side, under, out)
  • Ara, üst, orta
  • Bu yana, dolayı, sonra etc.
  • Esnasında, zarfında etc.
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Upper Intermediate: Past Tenses in Turkish

  • Simple Past Tense
  • Past Continuous Tense
  • Future in the Past
  • Necessitative Past
  • Turkish Conditional Past
  • Turkish Pluperfect
  • Reported Past Tense
  •  
    Go to the lesson

    Upper Intermediate: Verb Moods

  • Indicative mood
  • Passive mood
  • Potential mood
  • Obligation mood
  • Imperative mood
  • Causative mood
  • Reflexive mood
  • Subjunctive mood
  •  
    Go to the lesson

     

    Turkish Grammar Exercises:

    These questions are prepared to decide which level of Turkish you have. Please choose ‘I don’t know‘ if you do not know the answer of the question.

    Turkish Grammar Quiz.

    Merhaba, nasılsın?
    _________ , sen nasılsın?
    Ben de iyiyim. Teşekkürler.
    Please attach the 'without' suffix (-sIz) and plural suffix (-lAr) to the following word: Sınıf
    Please translate the following sentence into Turkish: "I'm going to Taksim from the hotel".
    Choose the correct translation of this sentence: "We need two breads".
    Choose the correct translation of this sentence: "When I'm not sick, I generally go for a walk".
    Choose the correct translation of this sentence: "I was going to call you but I forgot".
    Please complete the Turkish sentence:

    "Eğer üniversiteye gitseydi, ______________" (She would have become a doctor if she had gone to university.)
    Enter your e-mail to receive your quiz result and lesson notes.

    10 Hours of Studying in 10 Minutes or Less

    LEARN FAST: Study Turkish With This Well-Organized Course:

    Audio Recordings From Real-Life Situations

    Comprehensive Grammar Videos

    Fun Interactive Exercises

    15 Most Common Turkish Suffixes

    Mastering Turkish grammar is only possible if you know the Turkish suffixes, and how to attach them to each other. Turkish suffixes can be learned by hard studying but attaching them, finding the correct vowel/consonant is something else. Vowel and consonant harmonies decide which vowel or consonant need to be attached. Thinking fast while attaching the suffixes (doing it automatically) is a must to speak Turkish fluently.

    Here’s a list of suffixes in the Turkish grammar. (If you click them, you’ll go to the video)

    Check the sidebar for more suffixes.

    Turkish Reading Book

    Turkish Short Story Book – For Intermediate to Advanced Learners

    This book has 9 captivating short stories written with simple Turkish and reading is assisted with the vocabulary section at the bottom of every page.

    Some knowledge of grammar/vocabulary is highly recommended to enjoy these short stories which are written by real Turkish authors such as Ömer Seyfettin, Sabahattin Ali, or Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil.
     


    Turkish Grammar Books

    Turkish Grammar: Geoffrey Lewis (Amazon)

    This authoritative work investigates Turkish grammar in every aspect. Studying Turkish grammar with it can be challenging in the elementary stages but this is a book that you must have in your studying repertoire.

     


    The Delights of Learning Turkish: Yaşar Esendal Kuzucu (Amazon)

    This is a self-study course book that introduces Turkish grammar with examples, dialogues, and exercises. It takes the learners from the beginner level to the intermediate level. At the end of the book, you can also find a glossary section.

     


    Turkish Phrasebook & Dictionary: Collins (Amazon)

    You will never be lost for words in your travels around Turkey again” can describe this book very clearly. You can find important tips for your travels and 3000 words that you may use during your trips to Turkey.

     


    Elementary Turkish: Lewis V. Thomas (Amazon)

    This book enables learners to gain basic abilities and understanding of Turkish grammar. It is written by Lewis V. Thomas who is a professor at Princeton University and revised by Norman Itzkowitz to update for the modern Turkish.

     


    For the learners willing to know more about Istanbul:

    Inside Out in Istanbul: Lisa Morrow (Amazon) (Website)

    For most people, Istanbul is synonymous with its world-famous sights, the Haghia Sophia, the Blue Mosque, and Dolmabahçe Palace. Few tourists manage to go beyond the beauty of the historical district of Sultanahmet to visit the other face of Istanbul. Yet a short ferry ride from the Bosphorus to the Sea of Marmara brings you to the shores of Asia, to the everyday extraordinary. The stories in the 2nd edition of Inside Out In Istanbul take the reader beyond the tourist façades into a suburban world.

    Çağlar Öksüzoğlu
    Grammar Instructor


    I have been teaching Turkish for already 5 years on this website with my colleagues. We have created this well-organized course designed specially for fast progress. You’ll learn real Turkish right from the streets of Istanbul, not the boring textbook stuff.
     
    CHECK IT OUT