Grammar

Cases

♦ What is a ‘case’?
♦ Buffer-letter
♦ The absolute form
♦ Accusative
♦ Genitive
♦ Dative
♦ Locative
♦ Ablative (also its etymology)

 

Consonant Alternation

♦ ‘K’ to ‘G’
♦ Proper nouns
♦ Exceptions in the written language
♦ P,ç,t > b,c,d

Loanwords in the Turkish Language

♦ Etymology of ‘coffee’
♦ French and Italian loanwords in Turkish
♦ ‘Muharebe’ (eng. War), ‘Kitap’ (eng. Book), ‘Zan’ (eng. Doubt)
♦ Recent loanwords

Possessive Determiners (Personal Suffixes)

♦ Benim, senin, onun, bizim, sizin, onların
♦ Food: sarma, dolma
♦ The absolute form
♦ Words indicating nationality
♦ Exceptions

Postpositions, Circumpositions and Prepositions

♦ İçinde, içerisinde (in)
♦ Üzere, nezdinde, içerisinde
♦ Üstünde (on)
♦ Yan, alt, dış (side, under, out)
♦ Ara, üst, orta
♦ Bu yana, dolayı, sonra etc.
♦ Esnasında, zarfında etc.

Present Tense

♦ What is the present tense?
♦ When to use present tense?
♦ Şimdiki zaman
♦ İnterrogative form
♦ Singular/Plural

Apostrophe and Circumflex Accent

♦ “Kesme işareti” (‘) (apostrophe)
♦ How to say ‘what’s up’?
♦ Capital letter rules
♦ The Circumflex Accent
♦ â (şapkalı a) and how to type it.

The Turkish Alphabet

♦ List of 29 letters
♦ <Ü, İ, Ö, Ç, Ğ, Ş>
♦ Some history
♦ Changes in loanwords
♦ TDK (turkish language society)

Vowel Harmony

♦ Def. of vowel harmony
♦ Agglutinative languages
♦ Rule 1: minor vowel harmony
♦ Rule 2: major vowel harmony
♦ Examples and tips

Vowels

♦ Vowels
♦ Back and front
♦ Rounded and unrounded
♦ Soft g (eng. yumuşak g)

Verbs I (to be)

♦ Olmak ya da olmamak
♦ “to be”
♦ Negative form
♦ The past form of “to be”
♦ Hayatta en hakiki mürşit ilimdir.
♦ Conditional of to be
♦ Inferential of to be
♦ Değil

Var/Yok (There is/There isn’t)

♦ Var/Yok
♦ Yok: There is not / There are not
♦ Var: There is / There are
♦ Paradigm of var/yok
♦ Question Form: Var mı? / Yok mu?

Future Tense

♦ -ecek / -acak
♦ How to use Future tense?
♦ Future past
♦ Ancient future
♦ Examples

Aorist Tense

♦ Geniş Zaman
♦ How to form Aorist?
♦ How to say illiterate and literate in Turkish?
♦ What is şerbet?
♦ Aorist past tense
♦ Teşekkür ederim / Rica ederim!

Conjunctions

♦ What is conjunction in Turkish?
♦ ‘Dahi anlamındaki -de ayrı yazılır.’
♦ Ve (and)
♦ Ama, Ancak Fakat, Lakin (but)
♦ Madem, madem ki (seeing that)
♦ Ne … Ne (Neither nor)
♦ Gerek, Hem, İster, Ha, Ya
♦ İse
♦ Ki (that)
♦ Diğer taraftan, yoksa, çünkü etc.

Miş-Past (Reported Past Tense)

♦ Geçmiş zaman
♦ I gather that you have gone
♦ Negative of miş-past
♦ Interrogative of miş-past (Have I read?)
♦ Past perfect tense
♦ Video!

Past Tenses in Turkish

♦ Simple Past Tense
♦ Past Continuous Tense
♦ Future in the Past
♦ Necessitative Past
♦ Turkish Conditional Past
♦ Turkish Pluperfect
♦ Reported Past Tense

Turkish Adverbs

♦ Adverb suffix -CA
♦ Adjective or Adverb?
♦ Examples
♦ Convert the Noun into Adverb
♦ Cases with Adverbs
♦ Çok and Daha
♦ Adverbs of frequency
♦ Months and Season

You can learn helpful tips about Turkish Grammar on this page. We all know that learning grammar only can be boring. New techniques focus on different methods without grammar teaching. However, grammar always helps you a lot. We are grown ups and we have a higher mental capacity than children. Using grammar knowledge effectively make a great amount of progression.

Lesson Topics:

Each topic has its short summary below. To see detailed, click on the title.

8 Important Rules in the Turkish Grammar That You Must Learn

There are some basic grammar rules that will make your life easier when learning Turkish.

  1. Two vowels or two consonants rarely follow each other.
  2. Vowels from a specific type need to proceed the same type of vowels.
  3. Consonants from a specific type need to proceed the same type of consonants.
  4. If you are attaching a suffix to a proper noun, you’ll need to use an apostrophe to separate the suffix from the word.
  5. Word order in English is subject + verb + object whereas in Turkish subject + object + verb
  6. Non-continuant voiceless consonants (p,ç,t,k) tend to go voiced because it’s easier to say!
  7. There are three different buffer letters: ‘y’,’n’ and ‘s’. They prevent two vowels to come after each other.

New techniques focus on different methods without grammar teaching. However, grammar always helps you tremendously. We are grown ups and we have a higher mental capacity than babies. Also, we do not learn the same way that babies do. Using grammar knowledge effectively make a great amount of progression.

Turkish Grammar Topics:

Each topic has its short summary below. To see detailed, click on the title.

Go to the page

♦ What is a ‘case’?
♦ Buffer-letter
♦ The absolute form
♦ Accusative
♦ Genitive
♦ Dative
♦ Locative
♦ Ablative (also its etymology)

Go to the page

♦ ‘K’ to ‘G’
♦ Proper nouns
♦ Exceptions in the written language
♦ P,ç,t > b,c,d

Go to the page

♦ Etymology of ‘coffee’
♦ French and Italian loanwords in Turkish
♦ ‘Muharebe’ (eng. War), ‘Kitap’ (eng. Book), ‘Zan’ (eng. Doubt)
♦ Recent loanwords

Go to the page

♦ Benim, senin, onun, bizim, sizin, onların
♦ Food: sarma, dolma
♦ The absolute form
♦ Words indicating nationality
♦ Exceptions

Go to the page

♦ İçinde, içerisinde (in)
♦ Üzere, nezdinde, içerisinde
♦ Üstünde (on)
♦ Yan, alt, dış (side, under, out)
♦ Ara, üst, orta
♦ Bu yana, dolayı, sonra etc.
♦ Esnasında, zarfında etc.

Go to the page

♦ What is the present tense?
♦ When to use present tense?
♦ Şimdiki zaman
♦ İnterrogative form
♦ Singular/Plural

Go to the page

♦ “Kesme işareti” (‘) (apostrophe)
♦ How to say ‘what’s up’?
♦ Capital letter rules
♦ The Circumflex Accent
♦ â (şapkalı a) and how to type it

Go to the page

♦ List of 29 letters
♦ <Ü, İ, Ö, Ç, Ğ, Ş>
♦ Some history
♦ Changes in loanwords
♦ TDK (turkish language society)

Go to the page

♦ Def. of vowel harmony
♦ Agglutinative languages
♦ Rule 1: minor vowel harmony
♦ Rule 2: major vowel harmony
♦ Examples and tips

Go to the page

♦ Vowels
♦ Back and front
♦ Rounded and unrounded
♦ Soft g (eng. yumuşak g)

Go to the page

♦ Olmak ya da olmamak
♦ “to be”
♦ Negative form
♦ The past form of “to be”
♦ Hayatta en hakiki mürşit ilimdir.
♦ Conditional of to be
♦ Inferential of to be
♦ Değil

Go to the page

♦ Var/Yok
♦ Yok: There is not / There are not
♦ Var: There is / There are
♦ Paradigm of var/yok
♦ Question Form: Var mı? / Yok mu?

Go to the page

♦ -ecek / -acak
♦ How to use Future tense?
♦ Future past
♦ Ancient future
♦ Examples

Go to the page

♦ Geniş Zaman
♦ How to form Aorist?
♦ How to say illiterate and literate in Turkish?
♦ What is şerbet?
♦ Aorist past tense
♦ Teşekkür ederim / Rica ederim!

Go to the page

♦ What is conjunction in Turkish?
♦ ‘Dahi anlamındaki -de ayrı yazılır.’
♦ Ve (and)
♦ Ama, Ancak Fakat, Lakin (but)
♦ Madem, madem ki (seeing that)
♦ Ne … Ne (Neither nor)
♦ Gerek, Hem, İster, Ha, Ya
♦ İse
♦ Ki (that)
♦ Diğer taraftan, yoksa, çünkü etc.

Go to the page

♦ Geçmiş zaman
♦ I gather that you have gone
♦ Negative of miş-past
♦ Interrogative of miş-past (Have I read?)
♦ Past perfect tense
♦ Video!

Go to the page

♦ Simple Past Tense
♦ Past Continuous Tense
♦ Future in the Past
♦ Necessitative Past
♦ Turkish Conditional Past
♦ Turkish Pluperfect
♦ Reported Past Tense

Go to the page

♦ Adverb suffix -CA
♦ Adjective or Adverb?
♦ Examples
♦ Convert the Noun into Adverb
♦ Cases with Adverbs
♦ Çok and Daha
♦ Adverbs of frequency
♦ Months and Season


Turkish Grammar Exercises:

These questions are prepared to decide which level of Turkish you have. Please choose ‘I don’t know‘ if you do not know the answer of the question.

Turkish Grammar Quiz.

Merhaba, nasılsın?
_________ , sen nasılsın?
Ben de iyiyim. Teşekkürler.
Please attach the 'without' suffix (-sIz) and plural suffix (-lAr) to the following word: Sınıf
Please translate the following sentence into Turkish: "I'm going to Taksim from the hotel".
Choose the correct translation of this sentence: "We need two breads".
Choose the correct translation of this sentence: "When I'm not sick, I generally go for a walk".
Choose the correct translation of this sentence: "I was going to call you but I forgot".
Please complete the Turkish sentence:

"Eğer üniversiteye gitseydi, ______________" (She would have become a doctor if she had gone to university.)
Receive the quiz results to your e-mail

15 Most Common Turkish Suffixes

Mastering Turkish grammar is only possible if you know the Turkish suffixes, and how to attach them to each other. Turkish suffixes can be learned by hard studying but attaching them, finding the correct vowel/consonant is something else. Vowel and consonant harmonies decide which vowel or consonant need to be attached. Thinking fast while attaching the suffixes (doing it automatically) is a must to speak Turkish fluently.

Here’s a list of suffixes in the Turkish grammar. (If you click them, you’ll go to the video)

Check level 3 for more suffixes.

Turkish Grammar Books

Turkish Grammar: Geoffrey Lewis (Amazon)

This authoritative work investigates Turkish grammar in every aspect. Studying Turkish grammar with it can be challenging in the elementary stages but this is a book that you must have in your studying repertoire.

 


The Delights of Learning Turkish: Yaşar Esendal Kuzucu (Amazon)

This is a self-study course book that introduces Turkish grammar with examples, dialogues and exercises. It takes the learners from the beginner level to the intermediate level. At the end of the book, you can also find a glossary section.

 


Turkish Phrasebook & Dictionary: Collins (Amazon)

You will never be lost for words in your travels around Turkey again” can describe this book very clearly. You can find important tips for your travels and 3000 words that you may use during your trips to Turkey.

 


Elementary Turkish: Lewis V. Thomas (Amazon)

This book enables learners to gain basic abilities and understanding of Turkish grammar. It is written by Lewis V. Thomas who is a professor at Princeton University and revised by Norman Itzkowitz to update for the modern Turkish.

 


For the learners willing to know more about Istanbul:

Inside Out in Istanbul: Lisa Morrow (Amazon) (Website)

For most people, Istanbul is synonymous with its world-famous sights, the Haghia Sophia, the Blue Mosque and Dolmabahçe Palace. Few tourists manage to go beyond the beauty of the historical district of Sultanahmet to visit the other face of Istanbul. Yet a short ferry ride from the Bosphorus to the Sea of Marmara brings you to the shores of Asia, to the everyday extraordinary. The stories in the 2nd edition of Inside Out In Istanbul take the reader beyond the tourist façades into a suburban world