Grammar

You can learn helpful tips about Turkish Grammar on this page. We all know that learning grammar only can be boring. New techniques focus on different methods without grammar teaching. However, grammar always helps you a lot. We are grown ups and we have a higher mental capacity than children. Using grammar knowledge effectively make a great amount of progression.

Lesson Topics:

Each topic has its short summary below. To see detailed, click on the title.

Cases

♦ What is a ‘case’?
♦ Buffer-letter
♦ The absolute form
♦ Accusative
♦ Genitive
♦ Dative
♦ Locative
♦ Ablative (also its etymology)

Consonant Alternation

♦ ‘K’ to ‘G’
♦ Proper nouns
♦ Exceptions in the written language
♦ P,ç,t > b,c,d

Loanwords in the Turkish Language

♦ Etymology of ‘coffee’
♦ French and Italian loanwords in Turkish
♦ ‘Muharebe’ (eng. War), ‘Kitap’ (eng. Book), ‘Zan’ (eng. Doubt)
♦ Recent loanwords

Possessive Determiners (Personal Suffixes)

♦ Benim, senin, onun, bizim, sizin, onların
♦ Food: sarma, dolma
♦ The absolute form
♦ Words indicating nationality
♦ Exceptions

Postpositions, Circumpositions and Prepositions

♦ İçinde, içerisinde (in)
♦ Üzere, nezdinde, içerisinde
♦ Üstünde (on)
♦ Yan, alt, dış (side, under, out)
♦ Ara, üst, orta
♦ Bu yana, dolayı, sonra etc.
♦ Esnasında, zarfında etc.

Present Tense

♦ What is the present tense?
♦ When to use present tense?
♦ Şimdiki zaman
♦ İnterrogative form
♦ Singular/Plural

Apostrophe and Circumflex Accent

♦ “Kesme işareti” (‘) (apostrophe)
♦ How to say ‘what’s up’?
♦ Capital letter rules
♦ The Circumflex Accent
♦ â (şapkalı a) and how to type it.

The Turkish Alphabet

♦ List of 29 letters
♦ <Ü, İ, Ö, Ç, Ğ, Ş>
♦ Some history
♦ Changes in loanwords
♦ TDK (turkish language society)

Vowel Harmony

♦ Def. of vowel harmony
♦ Agglutinative languages
♦ Rule 1: minor vowel harmony
♦ Rule 2: major vowel harmony
♦ Examples and tips

Vowels

♦ Vowels
♦ Back and front
♦ Rounded and unrounded
♦ Soft g (eng. yumuşak g)

Verbs I (to be)

♦ Olmak ya da olmamak
♦ “to be”
♦ Negative form
♦ The past form of “to be”
♦ Hayatta en hakiki mürşit ilimdir.
♦ Conditional of to be
♦ Inferential of to be
♦ Değil

Var/Yok (There is/There isn’t)

♦ Var/Yok
♦ Yok: There is not / There are not
♦ Var: There is / There are
♦ Paradigm of var/yok
♦ Question Form: Var mı? / Yok mu?

Future Tense

♦ -ecek / -acak
♦ How to use Future tense?
♦ Future past
♦ Ancient future
♦ Examples

Aorist Tense

♦ Geniş Zaman
♦ How to form Aorist?
♦ How to say illiterate and literate in Turkish?
♦ What is şerbet?
♦ Aorist past tense
♦ Teşekkür ederim / Rica ederim!

Conjunctions

♦ What is conjunction in Turkish?
♦ ‘Dahi anlamındaki -de ayrı yazılır.’
♦ Ve (and)
♦ Ama, Ancak Fakat, Lakin (but)
♦ Madem, madem ki (seeing that)
♦ Ne … Ne (Neither nor)
♦ Gerek, Hem, İster, Ha, Ya
♦ İse
♦ Ki (that)
♦ Diğer taraftan, yoksa, çünkü etc.

Miş-Past (Reported Past Tense)

♦ Geçmiş zaman
♦ I gather that you have gone
♦ Negative of miş-past
♦ Interrogative of miş-past (Have I read?)
♦ Past perfect tense
♦ Video!

Past Tenses in Turkish

♦ Simple Past Tense
♦ Past Continuous Tense
♦ Future in the Past
♦ Necessitative Past
♦ Turkish Conditional Past
♦ Turkish Pluperfect
♦ Reported Past Tense